Ensures the material is correct and consistent in its treatment of: spelling, punctuation and grammar numbers and dates abbreviations, quotations and capitalisation headings (minimal or maximal capitalisation) choices between spelling preferences (organisation or organization) terminology styles (20th century or twentieth century, land-use or land use) textual dashes, quote marks, serial commas, bracket order, ellipses. 

Layout proofing 

Ensures design styles are retained during the design stage. Just a few of the possible problems include: running header and footer problems incorrect text or illustration alignment missing or incorrect captions figure sequencing problems cross-referencing issues italics superscripts and subscripts. Permissions editing 

A manuscript containing material from outside sources may require permission to use the material. Compilation of a permissions list, contact permissions departments. Note: Permissions can sometimes take up to three months to obtain. 


Ensures the final copy is error-free  before it goes to print. This involves proofing for grammatical errors  and punctuation and spelling mistakes. This could be checking a proof  against a copy to detect errors that have been made in typesetting and  design or proofing the final copy before going to print. Note: I always ask for a sample from the  middle of the manuscript when quoting, so I can advise whether the  manuscript is in need of proofreading or a more thorough copyedit.

Reference and fact checking

This is often overlooked, especially  when multiple authors are involved. It involves checking accuracy of  facts and quotes by reference to original sources used by the author or  to other reference sources. Note: For ethical reasons, I do not provide this service to students. 

Structural editing 

Sometimes a manuscript requires more than a copyedit.  This may include: amplifying or reducing content rearranging structure to create a more logical flow introducing elements such as tables or figures tightening the presentation of the material.